The first schools were established in ancient Greece, around the fifth century B.C. It is assumed that Spartan boys who were being trained for the Spartan military had also received teaching in reading and writing as well as music. In Athens, young boys learned how to memorize poetry and to read and write. Young Athenian boys also learned music and received training in athletics. By the second half of the fifth century B.C. the Sophists (ancient Greek teachers of rhetoric and philosophy) started training young men in the political and social arts, with the goal of transforming them into the ideal statesmen.